Four-dimensional dose calculation (4D-DC) is crucial for predicting the dosimetric outcome in the presence of intra-fractional organ motion. Time-resolved dosimetry can provide significant insights into 4D pencil beam scanning dose accumulation and is therefore irreplaceable for benchmarking 4D-DC. In this study a novel approach of time-resolved dosimetry using five PinPoint ionization chambers (ICs) embedded in an anthropomorphic dynamic phantom was employed and validated against beam delivery details. Beam intensity variations as well as the beam delivery time structure were well reflected with an accuracy comparable to the temporal resolution of the IC measurements. The 4D dosimetry approach was further applied for benchmarking the 4D-DC implemented in the RayStation 6.99 treatment planning system. Agreement between computed values and measurements was investigated for (i) partial doses based on individual breathing phases, and (ii) temporally distributed cumulative doses. For varied beam delivery and patient-related parameters the average unsigned dose difference for (i) was 0.04 0.03 Gy over all considered IC measurement values, while the prescribed physical dose was 2 Gy. By implementing (ii), a strong effect of the dose gradient on measurement accuracy was observed. The gradient originated from scanned beam energy modulation and target motion transversal to the beam. Excluding measurements in the high gradient the relative dose difference between measurements and 4D-DCs for a given treatment plan at the end of delivery was 3.5% on average and 6.6% at maximum over measurement points inside the target. Overall, the agreement between 4D dose measurements in the moving phantom and retrospective 4D-DC was found to be comparable to the static dose differences for all delivery scenarios. The presented 4D-DC has been proven to be suitable for simulating treatment deliveries with various beam- as well as patient-specific parameters and can therefore be employed for dosimetric validation of different motion mitigation techniques.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
- Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Imaging