The development and structural validity testing of the Person-centred Practice Inventory-Care (PCPI-C)

Brendan George McCormack, Paul F Slater, Fiona Gilmour, Denise Edgar, Stefan Gschwenter, Sonyia McFadden, Ciara Hughes, Val Wilson, Tanya McCance

Research output: Journal article (peer-reviewed)Journal article


BACKGROUND: Person-centred healthcare focuses on placing the beliefs and values of service users at the centre of decision-making and creating the context for practitioners to do this effectively. Measuring the outcomes arising from person-centred practices is complex and challenging and often adopts multiple perspectives and approaches. Few measurement frameworks are grounded in an explicit person-centred theoretical framework.

AIMS: In the study reported in this paper, the aim was to develop a valid and reliable instrument to measure the experience of person-centred care by service users (patients)-The Person-centred Practice Inventory-Care (PCPI-C).

METHODS: Based on the 'person-centred processes' construct of an established Person-centred Practice Framework (PCPF), a service user instrument was developed to complement existing instruments informed by the same theoretical framework-the PCPF. An exploratory sequential mixed methods design was used to construct and test the instrument, working with international partners and service users in Scotland, Northern Ireland, Australia and Austria. A three-phase approach was adopted to the development and testing of the PCPI-C: Phase 1 -Item Selection: following an iterative process a list of 20 items were agreed upon by the research team for use in phase 2 of the project; Phase 2 -Instrument Development and Refinement: Development of the PCPI-C was undertaken through two stages. Stage 1 involved three sequential rounds of data collection using focus groups in Scotland, Australia and Northern Ireland; Stage 2 involved distributing the instrument to members of a global community of practice for person-centred practice for review and feedback, as well as refinement and translation through one: one interviews in Austria. Phase 3: Testing Structural Validity of the PCPI-C: A sample of 452 participants participated in this phase of the study. Service users participating in existing cancer research in the UK, Malta, Poland and Portugal, as well as care homes research in Austria completed the draft PCPI-C. Data were collected over a 14month period (January 2021-March 2022). Descriptive and measures of dispersion statistics were generated for all items to help inform subsequent analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using maximum likelihood robust extraction testing of the 5-factor model of the PCPI-C.

RESULTS: The testing of the PCPI-C resulted in a final 18 item instrument. The results demonstrate that the PCPI-C is a psychometrically sound instrument, supporting a five-factor model that examines the service user's perspective of what constitutes person-centred care.

CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: This new instrument is generic in nature and so can be used to evaluate how person-centredness is perceived by service users in different healthcare contexts and at different levels of an organisation. Thus, it brings a service user perspective to an organisation-wide evaluation framework.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0303158
Pages (from-to)e0303158
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 10 May 2024


  • Humans
  • Patient-Centered Care
  • Female
  • Male
  • Adult
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Middle Aged
  • Psychometrics
  • Aged
  • Reproducibility of Results

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Multidisciplinary


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