Supporting apparatus of vertebrates: Skeleton and bones

Wolfgang Sipos*, Ursula Föger-Samwald, Peter Pietschmann

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to book/report/conference proceedingChapter in book/report

2 Citations (Scopus)


In vertebrates the skeleton consists of bones, cartilage, ligaments, and tendons and serves two major purposes: it is a supporting structure and a metabolic organ. With regard to the first aspect, the skeleton enables locomotion and supports the shape of the body. Moreover, bones protect internal organs such as the brain, heart, lung, and bone marrow. The bone marrow is an important site for the production of blood and immune cells. With regard to the metabolic function of the skeleton, the bone serves as an important storage organ for specific minerals. Very recent data also indicate that the bone is involved in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationComparative Medicine
Subtitle of host publicationAnatomy and Physiology
PublisherSpringer-Verlag Wien
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic)9783709115596
ISBN (Print)3709115582, 9783709115589
Publication statusPublished - 01 Dec 2013
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences
  • General Medicine


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