Numerous sex-based differences are observed across the spectrum of valvular heart disease, starting with pathophysiology and progression of disease, moving on to compensation and comorbidities (both cardiovascular such as coronary artery disease and noncardiovascular such as frailty), assessment of severity and hemodynamics including timing of intervention, and procedural risks/benefits and outcomes. The aortic valve is perhaps best understood with sex differences in both pathologic changes and response to volume and pressure overload, yet large gaps in our understanding still exist. Studies of other valve diseases have focused on differences in prevalence, presentation, and outcomes for surgical or transcatheter therapies. Defining sex-specific responses to valvular heart disease may improve disease recognition, define treatment strategies, and improve outcomes.
- Aortic Valve/surgery
- Heart Valve Diseases/surgery
- Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation
- Sex Factors