Self-Reports in the Field Using Smartwatches: An Open-Source Firmware Solution

Selina Volsa, Bernad Batinic, Stefan Stieger

Research output: Journal article (peer-reviewed)Journal article

4 Citations (Scopus)


In situ self-reports are a useful tool in the social sciences to supplement laboratory experiments. Smartwatches are a promising form factor to realize these methods. However, to date, no user-friendly, general-purpose solution has been available. This article therefore presents a newly developed, free and open-source firmware that facilitates the Experience Sampling Method and other self-report methods on a commercially-available, programmable smartwatch based on the ESP32 microcontroller. In a small-scale pilot study comparing this smartwatch and firmware to an equivalent design on smartphones, participants using the smartwatch showed increased compliance. The presented project demonstrates a useful tool for complementary tools like smartphones for self-reports.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1980
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 01 Mar 2022


  • Humans
  • Laboratories
  • Pilot Projects
  • Self Report
  • Smartphone


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