Self-Other Agreement in Job Performance Ratings: A Meta-Analytic Test of a Process Model

Heike Heidemeier*, Klaus Moser

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Journal article (peer-reviewed)Journal article

220 Citations (Scopus)


This meta-analysis explores agreement in self- and supervisory ratings of job performance (k = 128 independent samples). It suggests a 3-stage model of the rating process and reviews the empirical evidence for the relevance of each of these 3 stages to an understanding of agreement in ratings. The proposed 3-stage model serves as the guiding rationale for the examination of an extensive set of variables that moderate rater agreement. Results are reported for 2 indicators of rater agreement (correlational and mean-level agreement). Self-supervisor ratings yielded an overall correlation of .22 (ρ = .34; k = 115; n = 37,752). Position characteristics and the use of nonjudgmental performance indicators were the main moderators. Leniency in self-ratings is indicated by higher mean levels of self-ratings compared with supervisory ratings. Within Western samples, performance self-ratings showed leniency (d = 0.32, Δ = .49; k = 89; n = 35,417) dependent on contextual features, scale format, and scale content.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)353-370
Number of pages18
JournalJournal of Applied Psychology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • correlational rater agreement
  • job performance
  • leniency in self-ratings
  • meta-analysis
  • self-ratings

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology


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