Recalled parental rearing behavior in adult women and men with depressive and anxiety symptoms: Findings from a community study

Eva M Klein, Elmar Brähler, Katja Petrowski, Ana Nanette Tibubos, Juliane Burghardt, Jörg Wiltink, Matthias Michal, Philipp S Wild, Andreas Schulz, Thomas Münzel, Jochem König, Karl Lackner, Norbert Pfeiffer, Manfred E Beutel

Research output: Journal article (peer-reviewed)Journal article

4 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: Addressing the lack of population-based data, the purpose of this representative study was to assess sex- and age-specific associations of maternal and paternal rearing behavior with depressiveness and anxiety controlling for sociodemographic and somatic variables. Methods: 8,175 subjects participating in a population-based study completed standardized questionnaires measuring Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior and distress. Results: Women recalled their fathers as more controlling and warmer, and their mothers as more rejecting than men. Comparisons between age groups (≤ 60 vs. > 60 years) revealed that younger participants recalled more parental control and emotional warmth. In addition to sociodemographic and somatic risk factors, paternal rejection and maternal control were associated with depressiveness and anxiety both for women and men (OR 1.58-1.96; OR 1.37-1.66). Maternal warmth was negatively related to distress (OR 0.66-0.69). Conclusions: Findings suggested sex- and age-specific differences in recalled maternal and paternal rearing behavior. The current results highlighted the important role of recalled parental rearing behavior besides sociodemographic factors and somatic diseases for the occurrence of depression and anxiety symptoms across the age groups.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)243-258
Number of pages16
JournalZeitschrift fur Psychosomatische Medizin und Psychotherapie
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Anxiety/psychology
  • Anxiety Disorders/psychology
  • Child
  • Child Rearing
  • Depression/psychology
  • Depressive Disorder/psychology
  • Fathers/psychology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mental Recall
  • Mothers/psychology
  • Residence Characteristics
  • Sex Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Gutenberg Health Study
  • Depression
  • Mental Health
  • Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior
  • Anxiety

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental Health
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Applied Psychology


Dive into the research topics of 'Recalled parental rearing behavior in adult women and men with depressive and anxiety symptoms: Findings from a community study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this