Prospective, multi-institutional pain assessment of 150 women undergoing diagnostic cystoscopy

Stephan Seklehner, Zana Saratlija-Novakovic, Matthias Skopek, Harun Fajkovic, Mesut Remzi, Mario Duvnjak, Irene Resch, Stephan Hruby, Wilhelm lmHÜBNER, Davor Librenjak, Eckart Breinl, Claus Riedl, Paul F Engelhardt

Research output: Journal article (peer-reviewed)Journal article

9 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to prospectively assess women's pain during rigid and flexible diagnostic cystoscopy and afterwards during a one-week follow-up.

METHODS: Prospective, multi-institutional trial analyzing numeric rating scales (NRS) of women undergoing diagnostic cystoscopy. Pain categories: no (0 points), mild (1-3), moderate (4-6) and severe pain (7-10). Assessing of pain before, during cystoscopy, and at day 1, 4 and 7 of follow-up.

RESULTS: A total of 150 women undergoing rigid (N.=85) or flexible (N.=65) diagnostic cystoscopy were analyzed. Women undergoing flexible cystoscopy were more frequently pain-free (64.6% vs. 40%, P=0.003) and experienced mild pain less frequently (27.7% vs. 52.9% vs. P=0.002). No significant differences were noted among moderate (6.2% vs. 5.9%, P=0.95) and severe pain (1.5% vs. 1.2%, P=0.85). Patients undergoing their first (P=0.14) and repeat cystoscopy (P=0.08) had similar pain perception. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, women undergoing flexible cystoscopy had a 2.6 increased chance of being pain-free (OR=2.6, CI: 1.28-5.11, P=0.08) and their odds of experiencing mild pain were significantly lower (OR=0.34, CI: 0.17-0.71, P=0.004). The likelihood of experiencing moderate (OR=1.1, CI: 0.28- 4.4, P=0.83) or severe pain (OR=2.42, CI: 0.11-51.79, P=0.57) differed insignificantly.

CONCLUSIONS: Rigid and flexible cystoscopies were well-tolerated by most women. However, flexible cystoscopy was associated with a higher likelihood of being pain-free and lower chances of experiencing mild pain. Patients' previous experience with cystoscopy did not influence pain perception.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)417-423
Number of pages7
JournalMinerva Urology and Nephrology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2016


  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Cystoscopy/adverse effects
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Pain/etiology
  • Pain Measurement
  • Prospective Studies
  • Young Adult


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