Proprioception in the extraocular muscles of mammals and man

Roland Blumer*, Kadriye Konacki, Johannes Streicher, Wolfram Hoetzenecker, Michael Blumer, Julius Robert Lukas

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Journal article (peer-reviewed)Journal article

13 Citations (Scopus)


This article summarizes the authors' previous studies on proprioceptors in extraocular muscles (EOMs) of mammals and man. They report on muscle spindles in the EOMs of man, Golgi tendon organs in the EOMs of even-toed ungulates, and palisade endings in the EOMs of the cat. Muscle spindles: Muscle spindles are present in the EOMs of some mammals and in the EOMs of man. Compared with muscle spindles in other skeletal muscles, those in human EOMs exhibit structural differences. These structural differences may indicate a special function. Golgi tendon organs: Golgi tendon organs are absent in human EOMs. Golgi tendon organs exhibiting a specific morphology are present in the EOMs of even-toed ungulates. Their high number and rich innervation indicate functional importance. Palisade endings : Palisade endings are nervous end organs confined to the EOMs of mammals and man. It is assumed that these organs have a proprioceptive function. The authors show that palisade endings are immunoreactive for antibodies against choline acetyltransferase. Neuromuscular contacts, if present in palisade endings, are α-bungarotoxin positive as well. Taken together, these results show that palisade endings exhibit molecular characteristics of effector organs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)101-106
Number of pages6
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Extraocular muscle
  • Golgi tendon organ
  • Muscle spindle
  • Palisade ending
  • Proprioception
  • Cats
  • Humans
  • Child, Preschool
  • Eye Movements/physiology
  • Animals
  • Muscle Spindles/physiology
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Proprioception/physiology
  • Aged
  • In Vitro Techniques
  • Oculomotor Muscles/innervation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ophthalmology


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