Predictors of left ventricular thrombus after acute myocardial infarction: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Chun Shing Kwok, Sadie Bennett, Josip A Borovac, Konstantin Schwarz, Gregory Y H Lip

Research output: Journal article (peer-reviewed)Review article

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Left ventricular thrombus (LVT) is a recognized complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) which can cause significant morbidity and mortality from systemic embolism. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of factors that have been shown in studies to be independently predictive of LVT post-AMI. A total of 23 studies met the inclusion criteria with 1 047 785 patients. The proportion of patients with LVT ranged from 0.2% in the nationwide study in the USA to 36.1% in the cohort of patients with LV aneurysm. Pooled results from nine studies suggest that greater values for left ventricular ejection fraction is associated with reduced odds of LVT formation [odds ratio (OR) 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.86-0.93; I2 = 76%]. Left ventricular aneurysm was a significant predictor of LVT formation (OR 6.07; 95% CI, 2.27-16.19; I2 = 91%; seven studies) and anterior location of MI was also a significant predictor (OR 7.72; 95% CI, 2.41-24.74; I2 = 69%; four studies). Three studies suggest that there was an increase in odds of LVT formation with greater values of C-reactive protein (OR 2.06; 95% CI, 1.07-3.97; I2 = 89%; three studies). The use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (OR 2.52; 95% CI, 1.55-4.10; I2 = 0%; two studies) and greater SYNTAX score (OR 1.21; 95% CI, 1.08-1.36; I2 = 46%; two studies) were associated with LVT. In conclusion, patients with reduced ejection fraction, AMI and with left ventricular aneurysm are at risk of LVT formation and careful imaging evaluation should be performed to identify LVT in these patients to prevent stroke or peripheral embolism.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)250-259
Number of pages10
JournalCoronary Artery Disease
Volume34
Issue number4
Early online date13 Mar 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01 Jun 2023

Keywords

  • Embolism/complications
  • Humans
  • Myocardial Infarction/complications
  • Stroke Volume
  • Thrombosis/etiology
  • Ventricular Function, Left

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