Prediction of ineffectiveness of biological drugs using machine learning and explainable AI methods: data from the Austrian Biological Registry BioReg

Dubravka Ukalovic, Burkhard F Leeb, Bernhard Rintelen, Gabriela Eichbauer-Sturm, Peter Spellitz, Rudolf Puchner, Manfred Herold, Miriam Stetter, Vera Ferincz, Johannes Resch-Passini, Jochen Zwerina, Marcus Zimmermann-Rittereiser, Ruth Fritsch-Stork

Research output: Journal article (peer-reviewed)Journal article

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Machine learning models can support an individualized approach in the choice of bDMARDs. We developed prediction models for 5 different bDMARDs using machine learning methods based on patient data derived from the Austrian Biologics Registry (BioReg).

METHODS: Data from 1397 patients and 19 variables with at least 100 treat-to-target (t2t) courses per drug were derived from the BioReg biologics registry. Different machine learning algorithms were trained to predict the risk of ineffectiveness for each bDMARD within the first 26 weeks. Cross-validation and hyperparameter optimization were applied to generate the best models. Model quality was assessed by area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC). Using explainable AI (XAI), risk-reducing and risk-increasing factors were extracted.

RESULTS: The best models per drug achieved an AUROC score of the following: abatacept, 0.66 (95% CI, 0.54-0.78); adalimumab, 0.70 (95% CI, 0.68-0.74); certolizumab, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.79-0.89); etanercept, 0.68 (95% CI, 0.55-0.87); tocilizumab, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.69-0.77). The most risk-increasing variables were visual analytic scores (VAS) for abatacept and etanercept and co-therapy with glucocorticoids for adalimumab. Dosage was the most important variable for certolizumab and associated with a lower risk of non-response. Some variables, such as gender and rheumatoid factor (RF), showed opposite impacts depending on the bDMARD.

CONCLUSION: Ineffectiveness of biological drugs could be predicted with promising accuracy. Interestingly, individual parameters were found to be associated with drug responses in different directions, indicating highly complex interactions. Machine learning can be of help in the decision-process by disentangling these relations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number44
Pages (from-to)44
JournalArthritis Research and Therapy
Volume26
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 08 Feb 2024

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