Poorly controlled pediatric type 1 diabetes mellitus is a risk factor for metabolic dysfunction associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD): An observational study

Florian Koutny, Dagobert Wiemann, Alexander Eckert, Svenja Meyhöfer, Maria Fritsch, Angeliki Pappa, Susanna Wiegand, Marc Weyer, Michael Wurm, Daniel Weghuber*, Reinhard W Holl

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Journal article (peer-reviewed)Journal article

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have suggested a link between type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) and metabolic dysfunction associated steatotic liver disease (MASLD) in children and adolescent, but longitudinal evidence is lacking. This study aimed to investigate the potential association between poorly controlled T1D and elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT), serving as a proxy for MASLD in children and adolescents over time.

METHODS: The study included 32,325 children aged 2-17 years with T1D from Germany, Austria, and Switzerland who had undergone at least one assessment of liver enzyme levels recorded in the Diabetes-Patienten- Verlaufsdokumentation registry. Multivariable logistic and Cox regression models were calculated to show possible associations between T1D and elevated ALT values (>26 U/L in males, >22 U/L in females) as a proxy for MASLD.

RESULTS: Children with poorly controlled T1D (HbA1c > 11%) exhibited increased odds of elevated ALT values, after adjustment for age, sex, diabetes duration and overweight (odds ratio [OR] 2.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.10-3.10; p < 0.01). This finding is substantiated by a longitudinal analysis, which reveals that inadequately controlled T1D was associated with a higher hazard ratio (HR) of elevated ALT values compared to children with controlled T1D over an observation period extending up to 5.5 (HR: 1.54; 95% CI, 1.19-2.01; p < 0.01).

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the current study strongly links poorly controlled T1D in children and adolescents to MASLD irrespective of overweight. This association is not only present cross-sectionally but also increases over time. The study underscores the critical role of effective diabetes management in reducing the risk of MASLD in this population.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 01 Apr 2024

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