Palisade Endings of Extraocular Muscles Develop Postnatally Following Different Time Courses

Roland Blumer, Johannes Streicher, María A Davis-López de Carrizosa, Rosa R de la Cruz, Angel M Pastor

Research output: Journal article (peer-reviewed)Journal article

14 Citations (Scopus)


PURPOSE. To analyze in a frontal-eyed mammal (cat) the postnatal development of palisade endings in extraocular muscles (EOMs) and to compare the spatiotemporal and quantitative patterns of palisade endings among individual rectus muscles. METHODS. Cats of different ages ranging from birth to adult stage were studied. EOM whole mount preparations were fluorescently labeled using six combinations of triple staining and analyzed in the confocal laser scanning microscope. RESULTS. Palisade endings developed postnatally and passed in each rectus muscle through the same, three developmental steps but in a heterochronic sequence and to a different final density per muscle. Specifically, palisade ending development was first completed in the medial rectus and later in the inferior, lateral, and superior rectus. The highest density of palisade endings was observed in the medial rectus and the lowest in the lateral rectus whereas values for the inferior and superior rectus were in between. Palisade endings expressed high levels of growth associated protein 43 during development and were supplied by axons that established motor terminals. CONCLUSIONS. Cats open their eyes 7 to 10 days after birth and later develop a complex three dimensional visuomotor climbing and jumping behavior depending on accurate binocular vision and fine tuning of the ocular movements. Our findings indicate that palisade ending development correlates with important landmarks in visuomotor behavior and provide support for our previous notion that palisade endings play an important role for convergence eye movements in frontal-eyed species.

Translated title of the contributionPalisadenendigungen von extraokularen Muskeln entwickeln sich postnatal nach unterschiedlichen Zeitabläufen
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5105-5121
Number of pages17
JournalInvestigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 01 Oct 2017


  • Animals
  • Biomarkers/metabolism
  • Cats
  • Eye Movements/physiology
  • Female
  • Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect
  • Male
  • Motor Neurons/physiology
  • Muscle Development
  • Nerve Endings/physiology
  • Nerve Fibers/physiology
  • Oculomotor Muscles/innervation
  • Vision, Binocular/physiology
  • Singly-innervated muscle fibers
  • Multiply-innervated muscle fibers
  • Frontal-eyed animals
  • Extraocular muscles
  • Eye movements
  • Convergence
  • GAP43
  • Oculomotor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Sensory Systems
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Ophthalmology


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