MOG antibody associated disease (MOGAD) presenting with extensive brain stem encephalitis: A case report

Research output: Journal article (peer-reviewed)Case study

Abstract

Background: Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibody disease (MOGAD) is a relatively new entity of demyelinating diseases, clinically presenting with optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, or encephalic symptoms. Typical radiological features include demyelinating cerebral and spinal lesions, cortical involvement, leptomeningeal enhancement, or tumefactive lesions. Here we present a rare case of a young patient with extensive brain stem lesion on the MRI while exhibiting nystagmus, singultus and somnolence.

Case presentation: A 30-year-old male patient presented initially with fever and impaired consciousness, but furthermore developed nystagmus, singultus and tetraparesis during the following week. Repeated MRI examinations revealed extensive brain stem edema with notable bilateral affection of the cerebellar peduncles and the pons. Antiviral and antibiotic treatment was changed to intravenous corticosteroids and immunoglobulins as soon as the diagnosis of MOGAD was established by testing serum and cerebrospinal fluid positive for MOG specific antibodies. MRI alterations vanished completely over time with a delayed, nearly complete clinical recovery of our patient.

Conclusion: Brain stem affection in MOGAD is rare. However, in patients presenting with an unclear brain stem encephalitis the possibility of MOGAD should be considered and tested using MOG antibodies. In case of a positive testing treatment with steroids and immunoglobulins seems recommendable.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100432
Pages (from-to)100432
JournaleNeurologicalSci
Volume29
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022

Keywords

  • Brainstem encephalitis
  • Case report
  • MOG antibody encephalitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology

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