Interleukins (from IL-1 to IL-38), interferons, transforming growth factor β, and TNF-α: Receptors, functions, and roles in diseases

Mübeccel Akdis*, Alar Aab, Can Altunbulakli, Kursat Azkur, Rita A. Costa, Reto Crameri, Su Duan, Thomas Eiwegger, Andrzej Eljaszewicz, Ruth Ferstl, Remo Frei, Mattia Garbani, Anna Globinska, Lena Hess, Carly Huitema, Terufumi Kubo, Zsolt Komlosi, Patricia Konieczna, Nora Kovacs, Umut C. KucuksezerNorbert Meyer, Hideaki Morita, Judith Olzhausen, Liam O'Mahony, Marija Pezer, Moira Prati, Ana Rebane, Claudio Rhyner, Arturo Rinaldi, Milena Sokolowska, Barbara Stanic, Kazunari Sugita, Angela Treis, Willem van de Veen, Kerstin Wanke, Marcin Wawrzyniak, Paulina Wawrzyniak, Oliver F. Wirz, Josefina Sierra Zakzuk, Cezmi A. Akdis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Journal article (peer-reviewed)Review article

612 Citations (Scopus)


There have been extensive developments on cellular and molecular mechanisms of immune regulation in allergy, asthma, autoimmune diseases, tumor development, organ transplantation, and chronic infections during the last few years. Better understanding the functions, reciprocal regulation, and counterbalance of subsets of immune and inflammatory cells that interact through interleukins, interferons, TNF-α, and TGF-β offer opportunities for immune interventions and novel treatment modalities in the era of development of biological immune response modifiers particularly targeting these molecules or their receptors. More than 60 cytokines have been designated as interleukins since the initial discoveries of monocyte and lymphocyte interleukins (called IL-1 and IL-2, respectively). Studies of transgenic or gene-deficient mice with altered expression of these cytokines or their receptors and analyses of mutations and polymorphisms in human genes that encode these products have provided essential information about their functions. Here we review recent developments on IL-1 to IL-38, TNF-α, TGF-β, and interferons. We highlight recent advances during the last few years in this area and extensively discuss their cellular sources, targets, receptors, signaling pathways, and roles in immune regulation in patients with allergy and asthma and other inflammatory diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)984-1010
Number of pages27
JournalJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 01 Oct 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • adaptive immune response
  • allergy and asthma
  • B cells
  • Cytokines
  • dendritic cells
  • humoral immune response
  • innate immune response
  • interleukins
  • T cells

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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