Influence of electric field orientation on the effect of ocular current stimulation using full field electroretinogram

Maren Christina Blum, Lilly Leydolph, Sascha Klee

Research output: Journal article (peer-reviewed)Journal article


Ocular current stimulation (CS) exhibits potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative ocular diseases. For a full field electroretinogram (ffERG) we found no CS effect on the characteristic waves (a-wave, b'-wave, and b-wave). To investigate whether the orientation of the generated electric field has an influence on the CS effect, this study repeated the previous ffERG study with changing one CS electrode position and compared the results of both studies. In the first study 15 (8 m, 27.5 ± 4.5 years) and in the second study 17 (7 m, 22.0 ± 1.9 years) healthy volunteers were stimulated with an anodal, cathodal, and sham direct CS of 800 μA for 5 min in three sessions (randomized, different days). For both studies, a cut-sized ring rubber electrode was placed around the eye. A square rubber electrode was placed for the first study at the ipsilateral temple and for the second study at the visual cortex. Before (ERG 1) and during (ERG 2) the CS, the ffERG was measured. For both studies, the difference between the ERG 1 and ERG 2 measurement (CS effect) for the three characteristic waves was analyzed and compared between the studies. For statistical analysis, the Mann-Whitney U test with Bonferroni correction was applied (α = 0.05). The comparison of the data distribution showed only slight differences between the studies. The Mann-Whitney U test found no significant difference of the CS effect between the studies for all amplitudes and CS groups (p ≥ 0.0055). In the mean, the latency differences were smaller than the time resolution, therefore no statements for latency effects were possible. It can be concluded that the retinal cells generating the ffERG are not affected by ocular CS in either electrode montages tested.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCurrent Directions in Biomedical Engineering
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 01 Oct 2021


  • direct current stimulation
  • full field ERG
  • non-invasive brain stimulation
  • transorbital electrical stimulation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering


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