Imaging dose assessment for IGRT in particle beam therapy

Elisabeth Steiner*, Markus Stock, Boris Kostresevic, Alexander Ableitinger, Urszula Jelen, Hannah Prokesch, Alina Santiago, Petra Trnková, Adam Wolf, Andrea Wittig, Antony Lomax, Oliver Jäkel, Guido Baroni, Dietmar Georg

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Journal article (peer-reviewed)Journal article

20 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction Image-guided advanced photon and particle beam treatments are promising options for improving lung treatments. Extensive use of imaging increases the overall patient dose. The aim of this study was to determine the imaging dose for different IGRT solutions used in photon and particle beam therapy. Material and methods Measurements were performed in an Alderson phantom with TLDs. Clinically applied protocols for orthogonal planar kV imaging, stereoscopic imaging, CT scout views, fluoroscopy, CT, 4D-CT and CBCT were investigated at five ion beam centers and one conventional radiotherapy department. The overall imaging dose was determined for a patient undergoing a lung tumor irradiation with institute specific protocols. Results OAR doses depended on imaging modality and OAR position. Dose values were in the order of 1 mGy for planar and stereoscopic imaging and 10-50 mGy for volumetric imaging, except for one CBCT device leading to lower doses. The highest dose per exam (up to 150 mGy to the skin) was recorded for a 3-min fluoroscopy. Discussion Modalities like planar kV or stereoscopic imaging result in very low doses (∼1 mGy) to the patient. Imaging a moving target during irradiation, low-dose protocols and protocol optimization can reduce the imaging dose to the patient substantially.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)409-413
Number of pages5
JournalRadiotherapy and Oncology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Dosimetry
  • IGRT
  • Ion beam therapy
  • Lung
  • Particle therapy
  • SBRT

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Oncology
  • Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Imaging


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