BACKGROUND: Breast implant-related complications can be reduced by strict antiseptic precautions during insertion, but bacteria can often be found on implant surfaces on the occasion of revision surgery. The authors prospectively analyzed the association of bacteria found on breast implant surfaces with implant-related complications in breast implant revision cases. METHODS: The authors analyzed a total of 100 breast implant revisions in 66 patients between August of 2018 and January of 2021. Capsular swabs and capsular samples were taken intraoperatively. Analyses on the occurrence of bacteria and the occurrence of implant-related complications were performed. In addition, correlations between bacteria-contaminated breast implant surfaces and implant-related complications were performed. RESULTS: Implant-related complications (perforation, rupture, capsular contraction) were observed in 42 implant sites: eight unilateral and 34 bilateral cases. In total, 16 swabs showed positive bacterial growth, 10 of which were associated with a breast implant-related complication (χ 2 = x, y, and z; P = 0.006). The most common implant-based complication at contaminated prosthetics was implant rupture. The association of contaminated breast implants and implant rupture was statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The authors identified a correlation between implant complications and Gram-positive bacteria found on breast implant surfaces. The most common implant-based complication seen at simultaneously positive samples was implant rupture in 50% of the authors' cases. No capsular contraction or other complications were seen. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Risk, III.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)76-89
Number of pages14
JournalPlastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Issue number1
Early online date11 Apr 2023
Publication statusPublished - 01 Jan 2024


  • Breast Implantation/adverse effects
  • Breast Implants/adverse effects
  • Gram-Positive Bacteria
  • Humans
  • Mammaplasty/adverse effects
  • Postoperative Complications/epidemiology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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