Genetic and Environmental Sources of Implicit and Explicit Self-Esteem and Affect: Results from a Genetically Sensitive Multi-group Design

Stefan Stieger, Christian Kandler, Ulrich S Tran, Jakob Pietschnig, Martin Voracek

Research output: Journal article (peer-reviewed)Journal article

Abstract

In today's world, researchers frequently utilize indirect measures of implicit (i.e., automatic, spontaneous) evaluations. The results of several studies have supported the usefulness of these measures in predicting behavior, as compared to utilizing direct measures of explicit (i.e., purposeful, deliberate) evaluations. A current, under-debate issue concerns the origin of these implicit evaluations. The present genetically sensitive multi-group study analyzed data from 223 twin pairs and 222 biological core families to estimate possible genetic and environmental sources of individual differences in implicit and explicit self-esteem and affect. The results show that implicit self-esteem and affect maintain a substantial genetic basis, but demonstrate little influence from the shared environment by siblings (e.g., shared familial socialization in childhood). A bivariate analysis found that implicit and explicit evaluations of the same construct share a common genetic core which aligns with the motivation and opportunity as determinants (MODE) model.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)175-192
Number of pages18
JournalBehavior Genetics
Volume47
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2017
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Affect/physiology
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Child
  • Emotions/physiology
  • Environment
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Psychometrics/methods
  • Self Concept
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Twins/genetics

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