Fracture toughness determination of porcine muscle tissue based on AQLV model derived viscous dissipated energy

Research output: Journal article (peer-reviewed)Journal article

2 Citations (Scopus)


The ability of soft collagenous tissue (SCT) to withstand propagation of a defect in the presence of a macroscopic crack is termed the 'fracture toughness parameter'. In soft tissues not undergoing significant plastic deformation, it is purported that a considerable amount of additional energy is dissipated during failure processes, due to viscoelasticity. Hence the total work, measured experimentally during failure, is the sum of fracture and viscoelastic energies. Previous authors have aimed to apply constitutive modeling to describe viscoelastic hysteresis for fracture toughness determination with a tendency of models to either over or underestimate the viscous energy. In this study, the fracture toughness of porcine muscle tissue is determined using two strategies. Firstly, it was determined experimentally by calculation of the difference in dissipated energy of notched and unnotched tissue specimens undergoing cyclic 'triangular wave' excitation with increasing strain levels in uniaxial tension. The second strategy involved the extension and use of the adaptive quasi-linear viscoelastic model (AQLV) to model cyclic loading (model parameters were obtained from a previous study) and sequentially the dissipated energy was calculated. The mean value of the dissipated energy based on the AQLV approach was then subtracted from the total dissipated energy of notched porcine muscle tissue samples to determine the fracture toughness. The mean experimental viscous dissipated energy ratio was 0.24 ± 0.04 in the experimental approach, compared to 0.28 ± 0.03 for the AQLV model. Fracture toughness determined experimentally yielded 0.84 ± 0.80 kJ/m2, and 0.71 ± 0.76 kJ/m2 for the AQLV model, without a significant difference (p = 0.87). Hence, the AQLV model enables a reasonable estimation of viscous dissipated energy in porcine muscle tissue with the advantage to perform tests only on notched specimens, instead of testing additional unnotched samples. Moreover, the AQLV model will help to better understand the constitutive viscoelastic behaviour of SCTs and might also serve as a basis for future fracture toughness determination with constitutive model simulations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105429
Pages (from-to)105429
Number of pages1
JournalJournal of the mechanical behavior of biomedical materials
Early online date02 Sept 2022
Publication statusPublished - 01 Nov 2022


  • Animals
  • Elasticity
  • Fractures, Bone
  • Materials Testing
  • Muscles
  • Plastics
  • Stress, Mechanical
  • Swine
  • Viscosity


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