In this study, we assessed the prognostic relevance of temporal muscle thickness (TMT), likely reflecting patient's frailty, in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). In 128 newly diagnosed PCNSL patients TMT was analyzed on cranial magnetic resonance images. Predefined sex-specific TMT cutoff values were used to categorize the patient cohort. Survival analyses, using a log-rank test as well as Cox models adjusted for further prognostic parameters, were performed. The risk of death was significantly increased for PCNSL patients with reduced muscle thickness (hazard ratio of 3.189, 95% CI: 2-097-4.848, p < 0.001). Importantly, the results confirmed that TMT could be used as an independent prognostic marker upon multivariate Cox modeling (hazard ratio of 2.504, 95% CI: 1.608-3.911, p < 0.001) adjusting for sex, age at time of diagnosis, deep brain involvement of the PCNSL lesions, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status, and methotrexate-based chemotherapy. A TMT value below the sex-related cutoff value at the time of diagnosis is an independent adverse marker in patients with PCNSL. Thus, our results suggest the systematic inclusion of TMT in further translational and clinical studies designed to help validate its role as a prognostic biomarker.