PURPOSE: To investigate if the International Classification of Functioning and Health (ICF) context factors "age" and "sex" would impact the disablement and respective improvement with rehabilitation defined with the ICF core set for chronic low back pain (cLBP). Furthermore, associations between limitations/restrictions and measures of body function or quality of life were of interest.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: One thousand five hundred and twelve employed cLBP patients who completed 6 months of outpatient rehabilitation and for whom complete assessments were available before and after rehabilitation. Rehabilitation comprised of progressive resistance training, psychological counseling, and educational sessions. Main outcome measures were the ICF-activity/participation core categories automatically predicted from random forests and utilizing information from the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire and Pain Disability Index.
RESULTS: Generalized linear-mixed models revealed that upon completion of rehabilitation the presence of a limitation within the ICF activity "walking" significantly decreased with significant between-group differences. The category "doing housework" demonstrated gender-specific differences, and both gender- and age-specific differences were observed for work-related participation categories. There were no meaningful associations between ICF limitation/restriction categories and body function measures (point-biserial/Spearman's correlations).
CONCLUSIONS: The personal factors "age" and "sex" impact some ICF limitation/restriction categories in cLBP; appropriately addressing these personal features could further improve phase III rehabilitation outcome.Implications for rehabilitationConsistent with calls to explore the age and sex/gender influence on health and disease, little is known how these factors affect the disablement of individuals with chronic back pain.The factors "age" and "sex" drive differences in some categories within the ICF activity/restriction categories.If age- and gender-specific features in activities and participation are not appropriately addressed through interventions, rehabilitation outcome may remain suboptimal in cLBP.
- Activities of Daily Living
- Age Factors
- Disability Evaluation
- International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health
- Low Back Pain/rehabilitation
- Quality of Life
- World Health Organization