Digit ratio (2D:4D) and sex-role orientation: Further evidence and meta-analysis

Martin Voracek, Jakob Pietschnig, Ingo W. Nader, Stefan Stieger

Research output: Journal article (peer-reviewed)Journal article

28 Citations (Scopus)


Three new studies (N=132, 623, 1112) did not yield hypothesized associations between digit ratio (2D:4D), an assumed negative correlate of prenatal testosterone, and psychometrically measured sex-role orientation (positive association with femininity, negative ones with masculinity and masculinity-femininity difference scores) among heterosexuals of either sex. Meta-analysis of the pertinent literature (N=6311, 28 studies from 10 countries, 46% unpublished) showed only men's (but not women's) left-hand (but not right-hand) 2D:4D reliably related as expected (positively) to femininity. This effect was tiny (0.14% attributable variance) and possibly non-robust (crucially dependent on one large study included). Hence, the cumulative evidence does not support systematic, robust, noteworthy within-sex correlations between 2D:4D and the masculinity/femininity personality dimensions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)417-422
Number of pages6
JournalPersonality and Individual Differences
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 01 Sept 2011
Externally publishedYes


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