Cosensitization to the 3 Nonhomologous Major Cashew Allergens Ana o 1, Ana o 2, and Ana o 3 Is Caused by IgE Cross-reactivity

S Kabasser, C Radauer, E Eber, M E Haber, K Hieden, P Zieglmayer, L E Kost, S B Sindher, S Chinthrajah, S Geiselhart, K Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K C Nadeau, H Breiteneder, M Bublin

Research output: Journal article (peer-reviewed)Journal article

2 Citations (Scopus)


BACKGROUND: Cashew nuts often cause strong allergic reactions, which are even more severe than those of peanuts. Ana o 1 (vicilin), Ana o 2 (legumin), and Ana o 3 (2S albumin) are major cashew allergens. Cosensitization to all 3 nonhomologous cashew nut allergens has been observed. We hypothesize that this might be due to IgE cross-reactivity.

METHODS: IgE cross-inhibitions were performed with Ana o 1-3 using serum samples from cashew nut-allergic patients. The related hazelnut allergens Cor a 11, 9, and 14 were used as controls. For comparison, IgE cross-reactivity between the hazelnut allergens was investigated using serum samples from hazelnut-allergic patients.

RESULTS: The median percentages of cross-inhibition between Ana o 1, 2, and 3 were 84%-99%. In comparison, the median cross- inhibition values between hazelnut allergens were 33%-62%. The IC50 values revealed the highest IgE affinity to be to Ana o 3 and Cor a 14. Hazelnut legumin Cor a 9 inhibited IgE binding to Ana o 1, 2, and 3, with median percentages of 75%, 56%, and 48%, respectively. No cross-reactivity was observed between allergenic vicilins or between 2S albumins from cashew and hazelnut. Potentially cross-reactive peptides of Ana o 3 identified in silico overlapped with previously reported IgE epitopes of all 3 allergens.

CONCLUSION: IgE with high affinity to Ana o 3 that cross-reacts with the other 2 major nonhomologous cashew nut allergens might be responsible for the high allergenic potency of cashew nut. These cross-reactive IgE types comprise the major fraction of specific IgE in cashew-allergic patients and might be responsible for cross-reactivity between unrelated tree nuts.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)38-48
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Investigational Allergology and Clinical Immunology
Issue number1
Early online date18 Oct 2022
Publication statusPublished - 22 Feb 2024


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