BACKGROUND: Cashew nuts often cause strong allergic reactions, even exceeding those of peanuts. Ana o 1 (vicilin), Ana o 2 (legumin) and Ana o 3 (2S albumin) are major cashew allergens. Co-sensitization to all three non-homologous cashew nut allergens has been observed. We hypothesize that this might be due to IgE cross-reactivity.
METHODS: IgE cross-inhibitions were performed with Ana o 1-3 using sera from cashew nut allergic patients. Related hazelnut allergens Cor a 11, 9 and 14 were used as controls. For comparison, IgE cross-reactivity between the hazelnut allergens was investigated using sera from hazelnut allergic patients.
RESULTS: Median percentages of cross-inhibitions between Ana o 1-3 were 84-99%. In comparison, medians of cross-inhibitions between hazelnut allergens were 33-62%. The IC50 values revealed the highest IgE affinity to Ana o 3 and Cor a 14. Hazelnut legumin Cor a 9 inhibited IgE-binding to Ana o 1, 2, and 3 with median percentages of 75%, 56%, and 48%, respectively. No cross-reactivity was observed between allergenic vicilins or between 2S albumins from cashew and hazelnut. In silico identified potentially cross-reactive peptides of Ana o 3 overlapped with previously reported IgE epitopes of all three allergens.
CONCLUSIONS: IgE with high affinity to Ana o 3 that cross-reacts with the other two major non-homologous cashew nut allergens might be responsible for the high allergenic potency of cashew nut. These cross-reactive IgE comprises the major fraction of specific IgE in cashew allergic patients, and might be responsible for cross-reactivity between unrelated tree nuts.
|Journal||Journal of Investigational Allergology and Clinical Immunology|
|Publication status||E-pub ahead of print - 18 Oct 2022|