Chronic kidney disease is more prevalent among women but more men than women are under nephrological care: Analysis from six outpatient clinics in Austria 2019

Michal J Lewandowski, Simon Krenn, Amelie Kurnikowski, Philipp Bretschneider, Martina Sattler, Elisabeth Schwaiger, Marlies Antlanger, Philipp Gauckler, Markus Pirklbauer, Maria Brunner, Sabine Horn, Emanuel Zitt, Bernhard Kirsch, Martin Windpessl, Manfred Wallner, Ida Aringer, Martin Wiesholzer, Manfred Hecking, Sebastian Hödlmoser

Research output: Journal article (peer-reviewed)Journal article

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: A discrepancy between sex-specific treatment of kidney failure by dialysis (higher in men) and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease in the general population (higher in women) has been reported internationally, but the prevalence by sex has not been described for Austria. Sex disparity among nephrology outpatients has not been studied.

METHODS: We employed two formulae (2009 CKD-EPI suppressing the race factor, and race-free 2021 CKD-EPI) to estimate the sex distribution of CKD in Austrian primary care, based on creatinine measurements recorded in a medical sample of 39,800 patients from general practitioners' offices (1989-2008). Further, we collected information from all clinic appointments scheduled at nephrology departments of 6 Austrian hospitals (Wien, Linz, Wels, St. Pölten, Villach, Innsbruck) during 2019 and calculated visit frequencies by sex.

RESULTS: Using the 2009 CKD-EPI formula, the prevalence of CKD in stages G3-G5 (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) was 16.4% among women and 8.5% among men aged > 18 years who had attended general practitioners' offices in Austria between 1989 and 2008 and had at least one creatinine measurement performed. Using the 2021 CKD-EPI formula, the respective CKD prevalence was 12.3% among women and 6.1% among men. In 2019, 45% of all outpatients at 6 participating nephrology departments were women. The median of nephrology clinic visits in 2019 was two (per year) for both sexes.

CONCLUSION: CKD is more prevalent among Austrian women than men. Men are more prevalent in nephrology outpatient services. Research into causes of this sex disparity is urgently needed.

Original languageEnglish
JournalWiener Klinische Wochenschrift
Early online date31 Aug 2022
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 31 Aug 2022

Keywords

  • CKD
  • CKD-EPI 2021 equation
  • Outpatient
  • Outpatient services utilization
  • Sex disparity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (all)

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