Carbon ion dose constraints in the head and neck and skull base: Review of medaustron institutional protocols

Piero Fossati*, Ana Perpar, Markus Stock, Petra Georg, Antonio Carlino, Joanna Gora, Giovanna Martino, Eugen B. Hug

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Journal article (peer-reviewed)Journal article

6 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Dose constraints are of paramount importance for the outcome of any radiotherapy treatment. In this article, we report dose-volume constraints as well as currently used fractionation schedules for carbon ion radiotherapy as applied in MedAustron (Wiener Neustadt, Austria). Materials and Methods: For fractionation schedules, both German and Japanese regimes were used. From the clinical experience of National Institute of Radiological Sciences (Chiba, Japan) and Heidelberg Ion Therapy (Heidelberg, Germany; formerly GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, Germany) and the work by colleagues in Centro Nazionale Adroterapia Oncologica (Pavia, Italy) recalculating the dose from the microdosimetric kinetic model to the local effect model, we have set the dose constraints for critical organs of the head and neck area. Where no clinical data was available, an educated guess was made, based on data available from photon and proton series. Results: We report the constraints for the optic nerve and chiasm, brainstem, spinal cord, cochlea, brain parenchyma, salivary gland, eye and adnexa, and mandibular/ maxillary bone; constraints are grouped based on a fractionation scheme (German versus Japanese) and the risk of toxicity (safe, low to middle, and middle to high). Conclusion: We think validation of dose constraints should present a relevant part of the activity of any carbon ion radiotherapy facility, and we anticipate future multicentric, joint evaluations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25-35
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Particle Therapy
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 01 Jun 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Carbon ion radiotherapy
  • Dose constraints
  • RBE models

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Imaging


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