Allergologische Diagnostik 2021

Translated title of the contribution: Allergy Diagnostics 2021

Petra Zieglmayer*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Journal article (peer-reviewed)Journal article

Abstract

Allergic diseases are among the most common diseases worldwide. For appropriate management knowledge of the allergy trigger is crucial. The clinical picture of allergic diseases is diverse and correct diagnosis is often a challenge. The allergist needs to distinguish intolerances from allergies and infectious diseases from non-infectious triggers. Test results have to be interpreted accordingly to differentiate sensitizations from allergies. In this review current state of the art diagnostic measures to diagnose type I and type IV allergies are described and discussed. Immediate type allergies such as allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma and anaphylaxis are mediated by allergen-specific IgE antibodies detectable both in serum and tissue. Typical triggers are pollen, mites, animal epithelia, food, insect toxins and pharmaceuticals. In everyday practice, diagnostics are based on three complementary pillars: the allergy-specific anamnesis as a prerequisite of correct interpretation of subsequent diagnostic tests like skin testing and serological immunoglobulin detection. These can be supplemented as required and available by provocation tests to prove clinical reactivity and cellular assays to demonstrate the cellular immune response. Type IV allergic reactions are mediated by T cells causing contact allergy with a local eczematous reaction with a latency of several hours to days. Some 3,500 triggers, often from occupational environment, are known; e.g., nickel, chromium, cobalt, fragrances, rubber, plastics, preservatives, dyes, neomycin, benzocaine, sulfonamides, quinidine, wool wax, perubalsam, eye therapeutics, light filter substances, disinfectants, pesticides, technical oils or plants. Diagnosis of contact allergy combines the history of cutaneous exposure with associated symptoms and patch testing, with detection of a late phase clinical reaction after 6 to 48, up to a maximum of 96 hours after antigen contact.

Translated title of the contributionAllergy Diagnostics 2021
Original languageGerman
Pages (from-to)673-686
Number of pages14
JournalLaryngo- Rhino- Otologie
Volume101
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 01 Aug 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology

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