3D retinal imaging and measurement using light field technology

Stefan Schramm, Alexander Dietzel, Dietmar Link, Maren-Christina Blum, Sascha Klee

Research output: Journal article (peer-reviewed)Journal article

4 Citations (Scopus)


SIGNIFICANCE: Light-field fundus photography has the potential to be a new milestone in ophthalmology. Up-to-date publications show only unsatisfactory image quality, preventing the use of depth measurements. We show that good image quality and, consequently, reliable depth measurements are possible, and we investigate the current challenges of this novel technology.

AIM: We investigated whether light field (LF) imaging of the retina provides depth information, on which structures the depth is estimated, which illumination wavelength should be used, whether deeper layers are measurable, and what kinds of artifacts occur.

APPROACH: The technical setup, a mydriatic fundus camera with an LF imager, and depth estimation were validated by an eye model and in vivo measurements of three healthy subjects and three subjects with suspected glaucoma. Comparisons between subjects and the corresponding optical coherence tomography (OCT) measurements were used for verification of the depth estimation.

RESULTS: This LF setup allowed for three-dimensional one-shot imaging and depth estimation of the optic disc with green light. In addition, a linear relationship was found between the depth estimates of the OCT and those of the setup developed here. This result is supported by the eye model study. Deeper layers were not measurable.

CONCLUSIONS: If image artifacts can be handled, LF technology has the potential to help diagnose and monitor glaucoma risk at an early stage through a rapid, cost-effective one-shot technology.

Original languageEnglish
Article number126002
JournalJournal of Biomedical Optics
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 01 Dec 2021


  • Fluorescein Angiography
  • Humans
  • Optic Disk
  • Retina/diagnostic imaging
  • Technology
  • Tomography, Optical Coherence


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