The role of allergen-specific IgE, IgG and IgA in allergic disease

Mohamed H Shamji, Rudolf Valenta, Theodore Jardetzky, Valerie Verhasselt, Stephen R Durham, Peter A Würtzen, R J Joost van Neerven

Publikation: Beitrag in Fachzeitschrift (peer-reviewed)Übersichtsartikel

95 Zitate (Scopus)

Abstract

Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergy is the most common hypersensitivity disease affecting more than 30% of the population. Exposure to even minute quantities of allergens can lead to the production of IgE antibodies in atopic individuals. This is termed allergic sensitization, which occurs mainly in early childhood. Allergen-specific IgE then binds to the high (FcεRI) and low-affinity receptors (FcεRII, also called CD23) for IgE on effector cells and antigen-presenting cells. Subsequent and repeated allergen exposure increases allergen-specific IgE levels and, by receptor cross-linking, triggers immediate release of inflammatory mediators from mast cells and basophils whereas IgE-facilitated allergen presentation perpetuates T cell-mediated allergic inflammation. Due to engagement of receptors which are highly selective for IgE, even tiny amounts of allergens can induce massive inflammation. Naturally occurring allergen-specific IgG and IgA antibodies usually recognize different epitopes on allergens compared with IgE and do not efficiently interfere with allergen-induced inflammation. However, IgG and IgA antibodies to these important IgE epitopes can be induced by allergen-specific immunotherapy or by passive immunization. These will lead to competition with IgE for binding with the allergen and prevent allergic responses. Similarly, anti-IgE treatment does the same by preventing IgE from binding to its receptor on mast cells and basophils. Here, we review the complex interplay of allergen-specific IgE, IgG and IgA and the corresponding cell receptors in allergic diseases and its relevance for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of allergy.

OriginalspracheEnglisch
Seiten (von - bis)3627-3641
Seitenumfang15
FachzeitschriftAllergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Jahrgang76
Ausgabenummer12
DOIs
PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - Dez. 2021

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