Seasonal Variations in the Diagnosis of Testicular Germ Cell Tumors: A National Cancer Registry Study in Austria

Gennadi Tulchiner, Nina Staudacher, Josef Fritz, Monika Hackl, Martin Pichler, Maximilian Seles, Shahrokh F Shariat, David D'Andrea, Kilian Gust, Walter Albrecht, Karl Grubmüller, Stephan Madersbacher, Sebastian Graf, Lukas Lusuardi, Herbert Augustin, Andreas Berger, Wolfgang Loidl, Wolfgang Horninger, Renate Pichler

Publikation: Beitrag in Fachzeitschrift (peer-reviewed)Artikel in Fachzeitschrift

4 Zitate (Scopus)


We conducted a retrospective National Cancer Registry study in Austria to assess a possible seasonal variation in the clinical diagnosis of testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). In total, 3615 testicular cancer diagnoses were identified during an 11-year period from 2008 to 2018. Rate ratios for the monthly number of TGCT diagnoses, as well as of seasons and half-years, were assessed using a quasi-Poisson model. We identified, for the first time, a statistically significant seasonal trend (p < 0.001) in the frequency of monthly newly diagnosed cases of TGCT. In detail, clear seasonal variations with a reduction in the tumor incidence during the summer months (Apr-Sep) and an increase during the winter months (Oct-Mar) were observed (p < 0.001). Focusing on seasonality, the incidence during the months of Oct-Dec (p = 0.008) and Jan-Mar (p < 0.001) was significantly higher compared to the months of Jul-Sep, respectively. Regarding histopathological features, there is a predominating incidence in the winter months compared to summer months, mainly concerning pure seminomas (p < 0.001), but not the non-seminoma or mixed TGCT groups. In conclusion, the incidence of TGCT diagnoses in Austria has a strong seasonal pattern, with the highest rate during the winter months. These findings may be explained by a delay of self-referral during the summer months. However, the hypothetical influence of vitamin D3 in testicular carcinogenesis underlying seasonal changes in TGCT diagnosis should be the focus of further research.

PublikationsstatusVeröffentlicht - 01 Nov. 2021


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