Background: There is limited knowledge on how local cytokine secretion patterns after nasal allergen challenge correlate with clinical symptoms especially with regard to the “late allergic response,” which occurs in approximately 40% to 50% of patients with allergy. Objective: We sought to characterize the immunologic and clinical nasal responses to birch pollen allergen challenge with a special focus on the late allergic response. Methods: In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, birch pollen–allergic participants were challenged with birch pollen extract (n = 20) or placebo (n = 10) on 3 consecutive days. On days 1 and 3, nasal secretions were collected at selected time points over a 24-hour time course for the measurement of 33 inflammatory mediators. Clinical responses were determined through subjective symptom scores and objective nasal airflow measurements. Results: Provoked participants had significantly greater clinical responses and showed significant increases in tryptase and the soluble IL-33 receptor serum stimulation 2 (sST2) in nasal secretions within minutes compared with the placebo group. Eight of 20 provoked participants displayed high IL-13 levels 2 to 8 hours after allergen provocation. This group also showed significant changes in clinical parameters, with a secondary drop in nasal airflow measured by peak nasal inspiratory flow and increased symptoms of nasal obstruction, which significantly differed from IL-13 nonresponders after 6 hours. Conclusions: IL-13 response status correlates with clinical responses and type 2 cytokine responses in the late phase after allergen provocation.
ASJC Scopus Sachgebiete
- Immunologie und Allergologie