Treatment of malignant melanoma, the most aggressive form of skin cancer, continues to be a major challenge for clinicians. New targeted therapies with kinase inhibitors or drugs which modify the immune response are often accompanied by the development of resistance or severe side effects. In this context, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), a highly immunogenic melanoma tumor antigen, could be a potential target for alternative therapeutic approaches. The aim of the present study was to identify differences in the levels of CSPG4 protein expression in primary and metastatic melanomas as well as to analyze correlations between CSPG4 expression and histopathological data and patient characteristics. A total of 189 melanoma tissue samples from Lower Austria, including primary melanomas and melanoma metastases, were immunohistochemically stained for the expression of CSPG4 and statistical analyses were performed. A total of 65.6% of melanoma tissue samples stained positive for the expression of CSPG4. Primary nodular and primary superficial spreading melanomas demonstrated a significantly higher number of positively stained tissue samples for CSPG4 compared with primary lentigo maligna melanomas. No significant differences in the expression of CSPG4 were demonstrated between primary melanomas and melanoma metastases. The present study supports the advancement of the understanding of CSPG4 tissue expression patterns in melanoma patients and provides additional information for further investigation of CSPG4 as a potential therapeutic target.