A kappa light-chain myeloma was diagnosed as the underlying disease in a 52-year-old woman with acute oliguric renal failure. The patient was erroneously treated with high-dose intravenous melphalan (60 mg/m2). Because of this overdose treatment with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was initiated, but pronounced absolute leukopenia (white blood cell count < 0.5 x 10(9)/l) developed and lasted for 13 days. Following melphalan treatment a continuous increase in urine volume was accompanied by a decrease of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Within 10 days after the administration of melphalan the patient no longer required hemodialysis. We conclude that high-dose chemotherapy in combination with hematopoietic growth factors should be considered in individual cases with newly diagnosed light-chain nephropathy.